Andean Cloud Forest

Cloud Forest 2018-10-09T19:17:30+00:00

Cloud Forests and Biodiversity

Top 10 Hotspot for Biodiversity in the World

As one enters an Andean Cloud Forest it becomes immediately clear that this is an environment unlike any other in the world. Ever lush and green, with sweeping vistas of primordial-forest-capped mountains as far as the eye can see, coupled with the perfect subtropical climate make this the ideal location for your ecological excursion. Cool temperatures and high precipitation harbor an incredible diversity of epiphytes that hang decadently on every tree trunk, making this the mecca for orchid and bromeliad enthusiasts.

Rainbows of toucans and tanagers abound along forest edges while quetzals, antpittas, and woodcreepers skulk in the shadows. In fact, Andean Cloud Forests are world renowned for providing perhaps the best birding in the world. Pristine clear water streams harbor an unparalleled diversity of glass frog species, while providing escape routes for the famous Basilisk or “Jesus Christ lizard,” sights that every nature enthusiast should have high on his/her bucket list! You need only take one step out of our cabañas to behold all of this magic and wonder.

A trip to El Monte is truly a once in a lifetime experience, but chances are that you will be back.


Mainland Ecuador has three general regions, Amazon, Sierra and Pacific Coast. If we took a journey, let’s say, starting at 0 meters elevation from Coastal Ecuador along the Pacific Ocean eastward, up and over the Andes, toward the Amazon Basin we would traverse through some of the most important life zones in Ecuador. First we would travel through Coastal Lowland Rainforest, then to Foothill forest and then as we climb we would reach Cloud Forest (or Pre Montane Forest). Above this lies Paramo and the Volcanic Peaks. Now on our descent on the Eastern slope of the Andes we first find Paramo, then Cloud forest, Foothill Forest and finally the Amazon Basin. So Ecuador has two Rainforests (Coastal and Amazonian), two Foothill Forests (Western and Eastern), two Cloud Forests (Western and Eastern) and Paramo.

Of course I’ve not mentioned Dry Coastal Forest to the south and Coastal Mangrove. If we were driving on our imaginary journey it would have taken about 15 hours. Anyway, geographic diversity leads to biological diversity and Ecuador is definitely the proof with over 1,600 bird species, more frog and orchid species than any other country per square kilometer… overall amazing biodiversity!

What is a Cloud Forest and how is it different than a Rainforest? Well, our first Cloud Forest sensations will probably be… moist, cool, green, lush. These first adjectives are important to describe a Cloud Forest. Yes it is moist. The rainy season is from January until May, with a lot of the precipitation in the form of mist and also rain. Luckily the rain is pretty predictable during this time and starts at about 2 PM and continues for a few hours giving us plenty of time to schedule our day activities. Because of the higher altitude, Cloud Forests are cool. The highest temperatures in Mindo are around 80F and the low at night is around 55F… all year round! Because of the moisture and coolness (that slows evaporation), Cloud Forests are very green and lush. This unique climate allows loads of epiphytes, plants that live on other plants, to grow almost out of control! There are mosses on the trunks of trees, orchids between the mosses, ferns growing on branches, algae covering leaves… much mores so than in Rain Forests. In Mindo there is a distinct dry season for about 7 months (June through December) when rain is scarce and sporadic, but moisture levels are still maintained by mists that condense on the side of mountains.

So Cloud Forests are more lush and cooler than lowland Rainforests. Another difference is that Rainforests have larger, silt laden, slow moving rivers, while Cloud Forests are characterized by fast moving, clear rocky rivers. Both are diverse, but which is more diverse? Well it depends on what and where you look. Cloud forests have beautiful overlooks due to the irregular, mountainous terrain (no need for bird towers here!), while Rainforests are flatter and often separated by swamps, lakes or streams. This is important in the distribution of species. Rainforests are incredibly diverse but the plants and animals are more widespread while Cloud Forests, because of natural barriers, have many more range restricted or endemic species. If we look at epiphytes, such as Orchids, Cloud Forests are more diverse… at tree species, Rainforest. Bird species? It probably depends on the size of the area observed. If you expand out a little and include a few valleys and mountains, plus different elevations Cloud Forests probably hold more bird species. Remember this comes from someone living in a Cloud Forest!

The best advice is to visit both on your trip to Ecuador!

While mammal species are difficult to see, over time we have spotted on the El Monte reserve: Central American Agouti, Ocelot, Margay, Red Brocket Deer, Paca, Tayra, Andean Coati, Three-Toed Sloth, and White-Fronted Capuchin Monkeys. There is also a high diversity of reptiles, amphibians, butterflies and other insects. Some of the interesting lizard species include the “Jesus Christ Lizard”, which can walk on water and the very rare Proboscis Lizard. Frogs include various species of tree frogs, glass frogs, toads etc.


Almost from the very beginning human beings have placed huge demands on our planet. We can’t deny that, whether in his original form, hunting some animals to extinction or to the modern version where his hunger for natural resources is unprecedented, putting ever more pressure on forests, native species, world climate, local climate, cultures… well you get the picture.

So how do we lessen our impact on our planet?
Growing organic fruits and vegetables or buying them locally certainly helps. This reduces dependency on petroleum used for transport and pesticides and lessens the amount of carbon emissions. Our garden is all hand worked, which not only gives Giovanny and Jhon a job but also eliminates the need for noisy, polluting, resource burning tractors or tillers, not to mention giving us all a chance for a great workout! Also, all kitchen wastes are composted and recycled back into the garden.

Having a spring that gravity feeds water down to the lodge and cabañas is not only convenient but also eliminates the necessity for a pump, not too mention providing clean, fresh, cool water.

We have also allowed most of El Monte’s Reserve to regrow sucking in a countless amount of CO2 while releasing O2. El Monte’s spin-off, the Mindo Biological Station (MBS) was created in an effort to facilitate biological research in the Mindo area.

A micro hydro electrical system provides electricity for the cabañas and the main house.  We recently interconnected our hydrosystem with the main grid and are one of the pioneers of net metering in Ecuador. Alternative energy is here!

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